تاريخ كازاخستان

جمهورية كازاخستان Kazakhstan
رابط خريطة كازاخستان

تقع في أواسط آسيا وبين خطي عرض (40 ْ ـ 55 ْ شمالاً)، تبلغ مساحتها 2724730كم2، وتمتد 2925كم من غربي البلاد إلى شرقيها و1600كم من شماليها إلى جنوبيها، تحاذيها شمالاً وغرباً روسيا الاتحادية وبحر قزوين، وشرقاً الصين وجنوباً قيرغيزيا (قيرغيزستان) وأوزبكستان وتركمنستان. عاصمتها مدينة أستانة.

المظاهر التضاريسية متنوعة لسعة البلاد وتاريخها الجيولوجي الطويل. السهول والهضاب هي التضاريس السائدة في البلاد؛ ففي الغرب وبجوار بحر الخزر (قزوين) حيث المنخفض البنائي القزويني تنخفض الأرض كثيراً (- 28م) مكوّنة سهلاً لحقياً طينياً رملياً تطلّ عليه من الشمال مرتفعات جبال الأورال Ural وموغاجار Moghajar القليلة الارتفاع (600ـ658م)، وفي شرقها تمتد سهول «تورغاي» Torghay المائدية القليلة الارتفاع (250ـ300م)، وتعلوها تلال وتلاع تحتضنها سهول واسعة من الغضار والحجر الرملي والكلسي أحياناً، وبالاتجاه شمالاً يظهر السهل السيبيري الغربي الواسع المنخفض (100ـ250م)، وفي جنوبي كازاخستان تهبط الأرض لتحتلها صحار واسعة، رملية حصوية وغضارية، ممثلة في قيزيل قوم (الرمال الحمر) Kyzul Kum وقاراقوم (الرمال السوداء) Kara Kum وامتدادهما الأكبر في أوزبكستان وتركمنستان، وفي غرب بحر آرال تنتصب هضبة أوستيورت Ustyurt البنائية المائدية المظهر (400ـ300م) والمنتهية أطرافها بجروف قاسية.

وسط البلاد شبه سهل حتيّ واسع ومرتفع (400ـ500م)، كان سابقاً إقليماً جبلياً كتلياً قديماً براه الحت، وحوّله إلى حقل من التلال والمنخفضات وشواهد جبلية هينّة، مثل قيزيل راي(1559م) وكاراكارال (1358م) وفي جنوبها صحراء بيتبكدالا Betpakdala (أوسهب الجوع) الواسعة المرتفعة، وهي صحراء طينية حصوية تستثمر كمراعٍ.
أما في شرق وجنوب شرقي كازاخستان حيث الحدود الصينية، فتشمخ سلاسل جبلية عديدة مثل ألتاي (4506م) Altay وآلاتاو (4464م) Alatau وتيان شان (3638م) Tian Shan وزائيل آلاتاو(4951م) Zaïl Alatau وآلاتاو القيرغيزية (4875م) وسواها.
المناخ
تقع كازاخستان في قلب آسيا، بعيدة عن المحيطات والبحار، وتنتصب على حدودها وحدود جيرانها سلاسل جبلية عالية تحد من تغلغل الكتل الهوائية البحرية، وهي مفتوحة على الشمال القطبي، لذا يتسم مناخها بالجفاف والقارية الشديدة، وهو ما يُعهد في مناخات النطاق المتوسط القاري، التي تخضع طبيعة مراكز الضغوط الجوية فيها لحركة الشمس الظاهرية، ففي الشتاء الطويل تسيطر مراكز الضغوط العالية الجافة الباردة كثيراً، وفي الصيف تتحول (بسبب اقتراب الشمس من البلاد وتسخن سطح الأرض) إلى مراكز ضغوط جوية منخفضة جافة حارة، هذا الواقع أدى إلى ظهور تباين كبير في الظروف الحرارية الفصلية الشتوية والصيفية، فالشتاء قارس البرودة وجاف في كل البلاد ودرجات الحرارة تراوح بين -15 ْ و-20 ْم في الشمال و-5 ْ و-10 ْم في الجنوب. والصيف دافئ شمالاً (18 ْـ20 ْم) وحار جنوباً (25ـ30 ْم) هذا لا يمنع من هبوطها إلى (-30 ْ-40 ْم) شتاء و(+35 ْ و+45 ْم) في الصحاري الجنوبية صيفاً. الصيف معتدل في الجبال (20 ْ ـ 25 ْم) درجة والشتاء قارس في الأعالي كشمالي البلاد.
الهطول قليل (100ـ200مم) في وسط البلاد وجنوبيها الصحراوي، ويرتفع في الشمال إلى 200 ـ 300مم، وتصل في الجبال إلى 800ـ1000مم، والهطل ثلجي شتاء ومطري ربيعاً وصيفاً، والتبخر قليل الفعالية لانخفاض الحرارة في فترات طويلة من السنة، لذا فالبلاد غنية بمراعيها وزراعاتها البعلية.
المياه

نهر أورال
كازاخستان غنية بمصادر المياه السطحية والباطنية فيما عدا المناطق الصحراوية ذات المياه الملحة والمرة غالباً، والأنهار كثيرة تفيض في الربيع والصيف لذوبان الجليد وتشح شتاءً وصيفاً، وأهم أنهارها: إيرتيش Irytsh ت(4331كم) وسر داريا Syr Darya ت(2212كم) وأورال Ural ت(2428كم).
البحيرات كثيرة جداً، وأهمها بحيرة بالكاش Balqash، ومساحتها 17ـ25 ألف كم2 وعمقها 15ـ26م ثم بحيرة تينغيز Tengiz المالحة المرة، ومساحتها 1590كم2 وعمقها 8م.
النبات
في البلاد ثلاثة أقاليم نباتية:
السهول: تقع في الشمال ونباتاتها حشائشية سهبية نجيلية وعشبية، غنية بتربها السوداء وبمراعيها التي تقدم 12ـ15% من الطاقة الرعوية. فيها بقايا غابات مختلطة الأوراق، وإبرية فوق المرتفعات الجبلية المتفرقة.
شبه الصحراء: أكثر جفافاً وأقل حشائش وعشباً وزراعة، ولكنه يقدم 30% من مصادر التغذية الرعوية، وتكثر فيه الأغنام والماعز والجمال والخيول.
الصحراء: متنوعة النباتات لتنوع صخورها: رملية، حجرية، غضارية، سباخية، وأفضلها مناطق الرمال حيث المياه أكثر عذوبة، وتكثر هنا النجيليات والأعشاب الرعوية وشجيرات الاكاسيا Acacia والساكساؤول، وتربى فيها الجمال والخيول خاصة، وتوفر 35% من مصادر الرعي.
تشاهد النطاقات النباتية الجبلية في الشرق والجنوب، إذ تبدأ بالسهوب الجافة، والسهوب الرطبة، حيث تكثر النجيليات والأعشاب، ثم تظهر الحشائش الجبلية والحراج المتباعدة في طلائع الجبال، وتتحول مع الارتفاع إلى غابات مخلخلة عريضة الأوراق ثم صغيرة الأوراق وإبرية بعد ذلك، وبعد 2000ـ2500م، تظهر المروج الحشائشية الألبية والتوندرية.
الترب: تظهر في الشمال الترب السهبية الخصبة التشيرنوزيومية الخصبة، ثم الكستناوية ثم البنية، تبعاً لتناقص الرطوبة وزيادة الحرارة والتبخر، وفي الترب هذه مناطق زراعية ممتازة تنتج الحبوب خاصة، وتتحول هذه الترب مع تزايد الجفاف إلى ترب سمراء عادية وجبسية، ثم سيرازيومية رمادية، وفي الصحارى تسوء نوعية الترب وأغلبها بدائي التطور ومملح.
وفي الجبال تتكرر النطاقية السابقة إذ تبدأ بالترب السيرازيوميه وتتحول إلى بنية وكستناوية وتشيرنوزيومية جبلية، مع الارتفاع وتزايد الرطوبة، وبعدها تظهر الترب الرمادية الغابية، وفي أعالي الجبال تتشكل الترب المرجية الألبية والتوندرية الرطبة.
السكان

الكازاخ شعب ينتمي للأرومة العرقية الناطقة بالتركية الطورانية، تضمها عادات وتقاليد حضارية واحدة ودين واحد هو الإسلام.
سُكنت كازاخستان منذ الألف الأولى ما قبل الميلاد وفي مطلع القرن الميلادي، من قبل قبائل عديدة: ساك وكانغيو وآلان، وفي القرنين السادس والسابع الميلاديين جاءت قبائل تركية عديدة: كاغانات، تورغيش، كارلووك، وبعد قرن آخر قدم الكيماك ثم كيدان وأضحوا جزءاً من دولة قاراخان التركية.
أخذت هذه القبائل بالانصهار التدريجي، بل استوعبت قبائل منغولية إبان المد المنغولي في القرن الثالث عشر، فظهر الشعب الكازاخي، وبعد المد الروسي في سيبيريا التتارية انضمت قبائل تتارية للشعب الكازاخي، بعد ذلك اتجه الروس إلى دول آسيا الوسطى وكازاخستان وأخضعوها لهم في القرن التاسع عشر، وبدأت الهجرة الروسية إلى هذه الأقطار وتعاظم عدد الروس بعد الثورة الشيوعية واستقروا بأعداد كبيرة (2ـ3ملايين) في شمالي وجنوبي البلاد، بل شكّلوا مع الأوكرانيين والروس البيض، ومن بعض الألمان، نسبة 60% من السكان ونيف.

أرض كازاخستان غنية جداً بمعادنها (حديد، فحم، كروم، كوبالت، ذهب، نحاس، فوسفات، نيكل) ويقدر احتياطي الفحم بأكثر من 45مليار طن، وتنتج 27مل.طن من الحديد و38مليون طن من الفحم ومن النحاس 500000طن والكروم 20000طن، ومن الطاقة 64مليار ك.و.س، وتنتج النفط والغاز كذلك.
المواصلات جيدة ويصل طول السكك الحديدية إلى 143ألف كم، والمعبدة 105ألف كم، والملاحة محصورة في بحر قزوين وبحيرة بلخاش ونهر إيريتش.
نبذة سياسية
كازاخستان دولة برلمانية حكمها رئاسي، ورئيس الدولة بيده أغلب السلطات الإدارية والتنفيذية وهو القائد الأعلى للبلاد والقوات المسلحة، ينتخب من قبل الشعب مدة سبع سنوات، وهو الذي يعيّن رئيس مجلس الوزراء إدارياً للدولة.
ينتخب الشعب برلمانيه الذين يبلغ عددهم 116نائباً، ويقعون في فئتين مجلس الشيوخ Senat وعدده 39عضواً، ومجلس النواب أو ما يعرف في كازاخستان باسم Mazhili وتعداده 77عضواً. ويحق لمن تجاوز عمره 18سنة المشاركة في انتخاب المجلسين.

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تاريخ كازاخستان
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؟ – 1041
حكام كازاخستان = ….
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1041 – 1141
حكام كازاخستان = السلاجقة الكبار
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1141-1212
حكام كازاخستان = القراقيطاي
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1212-1221
حكام كازاخستان = خوارزمشاه
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1227-1395
حكام كازاخستان = الجاغاطاي
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1395-1718
حكام كازاخستان = الخانات الكازاخ
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1718-1799
حكام كازاخستان =— أولي خوز
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1718-1812
حكام كازاخستان =— أورطا خوز
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1718-1847
حكام كازاخستان =— كيشي خوز
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1854-1917
حكام كازاخستان = قياصرة روسيا
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1917
حكام كازاخستان = الإتحاد السوفياتي
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1917-1920
حكام كازاخستان = الحكومة الكازاخية المؤقتة
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1920-1925
حكام كازاخستان = جمهورية قرغيزيا الذاتية الحكم
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1925-1936
حكام كازاخستان = جمهورية الكازاخ الذاتية الحكمتفصيل:
لقد وضحت حدود كازاخستان في العهد الشيوعي وعرفت في البدء باسم جمهورية قيرغيزستان الذاتية الحكم.
وفي الفترة الممتدة بين عامي 1925و1936 أضحت جمهورية كازاخستان الذاتية الحكم، وبعد ذلك عُدت إحدى جمهوريات الاتحاد السوفييتي.

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1936-1991
حكام كازاخستان = جمهورية كازاخستان الإشتراكية
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1991-حالياً
حكام كازاخستان = جمهورية كازاخستان
1991 أعلنت انفصالها عن الاتحاد السوفييتي، وأصبحت جمهورية مستقلة
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Prehistory

A cataphract-style parade armor of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan.
Humans have inhabited present-day Kazakhstan since the earliest Stone Age, generally pursuing the nomadic pastoralism for which the region’s climate and terrain are best suited.
Prehistoric Bronze Age cultures that extended onto Kazakh territory include the Srubna culture, the Afanasevo culture and the Andronovo culture. Between 500 BC and 500 AD, Kazakhstan was home to the early nomadic warrior cultures: the Saka and the Huns.
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Early history
The earliest well-documented state in the region was the Turkic Kaganate, or Gokturk, Köktürk state, established by the Ashina clan, which came into existence in the 6th century AD.
The Qarluqs, a confederation of Turkic tribes, established a state in what is now eastern Kazakhstan in 766.
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In the 8th and 9th centuries:
portions of southern Kazakhstan were conquered by Arabs, who also introduced Islam.
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from the 9th through the 11th centuries:
The Oghuz Turks controlled western Kazakhstan
the Kimak and Kipchak peoples, also of Turkic origin, controlled the east at roughly the same time.
The large central desert of Kazakhstan is still called Dashti-Kipchak, or the Kipchak Steppe.
The capital (Astana) was home of a lot of Huns and Saka.
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In the late 9h century:
the Qarluq state was destroyed by invaders who established the large Qarakhanid state, which occupied a region known as Transoxiana, the area north and east of the Oxus River (the present-day Amu Darya), extending into what is now China.
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Beginning in the early 11th century, the Qarakhanids fought constantly among themselves and with the Seljuk Turks to the south.
In the course of these conflicts, parts of present-day Kazakhstan shifted back and forth between the combatants.
The Qarakhanids, who accepted Islam and the authority of the Arab Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad during their dominant period, were conquered in the 1130s by the Karakitai, a Mongol confederation from eastern Mongolia.
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In the mid-12th century:
an independent state of Khorazm along the Oxus River broke away from the weakening Karakitai, but the bulk of the Karakitai state lasted until the Mongol invasion of Genghis Khan in 1219–1221.
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After the Mongol capture of the Karakitai state, Kazakhstan fell under the control of a succession of rulers of the Mongolian Golden Horde, the western branch of the Mongol Empire. The horde, or jüz, is the precursor of the present-day clan. By the early 15th century, the ruling structure had split into several large groups known as khanates, including the Nogai Horde and the Uzbek Khanate.
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(1465–1731)
Kazakh Khanate
Main article: Kazakh Khanate
The Kazakh Khanate was founded in 1465 on the banks of Jetisu (literally means seven rivers) in the south eastern part of present Republic of Kazakhstan by Janybek Khan and Kerei Khan. During the reign of Kasym Khan (1511–1523), the Kazakh Khanate expanded considerably.
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1520
Kasym Khan instituted the first Kazakh code of laws in 1520, called “Qasym Khannyn Qasqa Zholy” (Bright Road of Kasym Khan).

Other prominent Kazakh khans included Haknazar Khan, Esim Khan, Tauke Khan, and Ablai Khan.

The Kazakh Khanate did not always have a unified government. The Kazakhs were traditionally divided into three parts – the Great jüz, Middle jüz, and Little jüz. All zhuzes had to agree in order to have a common khan. In particular, in 1731 there was no strong Kazakh leadership, and the three zhuzes were incorporated into the Russian Empire one by one. At that point, the Kazakh Khanate ceased to exist.

The Kazakh Khanate is described in historical texts such as the Tarikh-i-Rashidi (1541–1545) by Muhammad Haidar Dughlat, and Zhamigi-at-Tavarikh (1598–1599) by Kadyrgali Kosynuli Zhalayir.
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(1731–1917)
In the Russian Empire

Kazakhs deliver a white horse as a gift to the Qianlong Emperor of China (1757), soon after the Qing conquest of Xinjiang.

Soon, intensive trade started in Kulja and Chuguchak, Kazakh horses, sheep and goats being traded for Chinese silk and cotton fabrics.

Russian traders and soldiers began to appear on the northwestern edge of Kazakh territory in the 17th century, when Cossacks established the forts that later became the cities of Oral (Ural’sk) and Atyrau (Gur’yev). Russians were able to seize Kazakh territory because the khanates were preoccupied by Kalmyks (Oirats, Dzungars), who in the late 16th century had begun to move into Kazakh territory from the east. Forced westward in what they call their Great Retreat, the Kazakhs were increasingly caught between the Kalmyks and the Russians. Two of Kazakh Hordes were depend of Oirat Huntaiji. In 1730 Abul Khayr, one of the khans of the Lesser Horde, sought Russian assistance. Although Abul Khayr’s intent had been to form a temporary alliance against the stronger Kalmyks, the Russians gained permanent control of the Lesser Horde as a result of his decision. The Russians conquered the Middle Horde by 1798, but the Great Horde managed to remain independent until the 1820s, when the expanding Kokand Khanate to the south forced the Great Horde khans to choose Russian protection, which seemed to them the lesser of two evils.

The colonization of Kazakhstan by Russia was slowed down by numerous uprisings and wars in 19th century. For example, uprisings of Isatay Taymanuly and Makhambet Utemisuly in 1836 – 1838 and the war led by Eset Kotibaruli in 1847 – 1858 were one of such events of anti-colonial resistance.
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In 1863 :
Russian Empire elaborated a new imperial policy, announced in the Gorchakov Circular, asserting the right to annex “troublesome” areas on the empire’s borders. This policy led immediately to the Russian conquest of the rest of Central Asia and the creation of two administrative districts, the General-Gubernatorstvo (Governor-Generalship) of Russian Turkestan and that of the Steppe. Most of present-day Kazakhstan was in the Steppe District, and parts of present-day southern Kazakhstan, including Almaty (Verny), were in the Governor-Generalship.
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In the early 19th century:
the construction of Russian forts began to have a destructive effect on the Kazakh traditional economy by limiting the once-vast territory over which the nomadic tribes could drive their herds and flocks. The final disruption of nomadism began in the 1890s, when many Russian settlers were introduced into the fertile lands of northern and eastern Kazakhstan.
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In 1906
the Trans-Aral Railway between Orenburg and Tashkent was completed, further facilitating Russian colonisation of the fertile lands of Semirechie. Between 1906 and 1912, more than a half-million Russian farms were started as part of the reforms of Russian minister of the interior Petr Stolypin, putting immense pressure on the traditional Kazakh way of life by occupying grazing land and using scarce water resources.

Starving and displaced, many Kazakhs joined in the general Central Asian Revolt against conscription into the Russian imperial army, which the tsar ordered in July 1916 as part of the effort against Germany in World War I. In late 1916, Russian forces brutally suppressed the widespread-armed resistance to the taking of land and conscription of Central Asians. Thousands of Kazakhs were killed, and thousands of others fled to China and Mongolia
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(1917–1920)
The Alash Autonomy
In 1917 a group of secular nationalists called the Alash Orda Horde of Alash, named for a legendary founder of the Kazakh people, attempted to set up an independent national government – the Alash Autonomy. This state lasted just over two years (December 13, 1917 to August 26, 1920) before surrendering to the Bolshevik authorities, who then sought to preserve Russian control under a new political system.
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(1920–1991)
In the Soviet Union
The Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was set up in 1920 and was renamed the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1925 when the Kazakhs were differentiated officially from the Kyrgyz. The Russian Empire recognized the ethnic difference between the two groups; it called them both Kyrgyz to avoid confusion between the terms Kazakh and Cossack (both names originating from Turkic “free man”.)
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In 1925, the autonomous republic’s original capital, Orenburg possibly from Horn-(meaning corner) and Burg- (meaning Castle), was reincorporated into Russian territory.
Almaty (called Alma-Ata during the Soviet period), a provincial city in the far southeast, became the new capital. In 1936 the territory was made a full Soviet republic, the Kazakh SSR, also called Kazakhstan. With an area of 2,717,300 km² (1,063,200 square miles), the Kazakh SSR was the second largest constituent republic of the Soviet Union.
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From 1929 to 1934, during the period when Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was trying to collectivize agriculture, Kazakhstan endured repeated famines, similar to the Holodomor in Ukraine, for which it may have provided a model, because peasants had slaughtered their livestock in protest against Soviet agricultural policy. In that period, over a million Kazakhs and 80 percent of the republic’s livestock died.

Thousands more Kazakhs tried to escape to China, although most starved in the attempt. Conquest says that the application of party theory to the Kazakhs, and to a lesser extent to the other nomad peoples, amounted economically to the imposition by force of an untried stereotype on a functioning social order, with disastrous results. And in human terms it meant death and suffering proportionally even greater than in the Ukraine

Many European Soviet citizens and much of Russia’s industry were relocated to Kazakhstan during World War II, when Nazi armies threatened to capture all the European industrial centers of the Soviet Union. Groups of Crimean Tatars, Germans and Muslims from the North Caucasus region were deported to Kazakhstan during the war because it was feared that they would collaborate with the enemy. Most Poles (about a million) from Eastern Poland invaded by USSR in 1939 were deported to Kazakhstan. Half of them died there. Local people became famous for sharing their meager food with the starving strangers. Many more non-Kazakhs arrived in the years 1953–1965, during the so-called Virgin Lands Campaign of Soviet premier Nikita S. Khrushchev (in office from 1956 to 1964).
Under that program, huge tracts of Kazakh grazing land were put to the plow for the cultivation of wheat and other cereal grains.
Still more settlers came in the late 1960s and 1970s, when the government paid handsome bonuses to workers participating in a program to relocate Soviet industry close to the extensive coal, gas, and oil deposits of Central Asia. One consequence of the decimation of the nomadic Kazakh population and the in-migration of non-Kazakhs was that by the 1970s Kazakhstan was the only Soviet republic in which the eponymous nationality was a minority in its own republic.

Within the centrally controlled structure of the Soviet system, Kazakhstan played a vital industrial and agricultural role; the vast coal deposits discovered in Kazakhstani territory in the twentieth century promised to replace the depleted fuel reserves in the European territories of the union.
The vast distances between the European industrial centers and coalfields in Kazakhstan presented a formidable problem that was only partially solved by Soviet efforts to industrialize Central Asia.
That endeavor left the newly independent Republic of Kazakhstan a mixed legacy: a population that includes nearly as many Russians as Kazakhs; the presence of a dominating class of Russian technocrats, who are necessary to economic progress but ethnically unassimilated; and a well-developed energy industry, based mainly on coal and oil, whose efficiency is inhibited by major infrastructural deficiencies.
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(1991–present)
Republic of Kazakhstan
On December 16, 1986, the Soviet Politburo dismissed the long serving General Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Dinmukhamed Konayev. His successor was Gennady Kolbin from Ulyanovsk, Russia. This caused demonstrations protesting this move.
These demonstrations were violently suppressed by the authorities, “between two and twenty people lost their lives, and between 763 and 1137 received injuries.
Between 2212 and 2336 demonstrators were arrested”. Also Kolbin prepared to unleash a purge within the Communist Youth League against any sympathisers, these moves were halted by Moscow. Later, in September 1989, Kolbin was replaced with a Kazakh, Nursultan Nazarbayev.
——————-

In June 1990
Moscow declared formally the sovereignty of the central government over Kazakhstan, forcing Kazakhstan to elaborate its own statement of sovereignty. This exchange greatly exacerbated tensions between the republic’s two largest ethnic groups, who at that point were numerically about equal.
Beginning in mid-August 1990, Kazakh and Russian nationalists began to demonstrate frequently around Kazakhstan’s parliament building, attempting to influence the final statement of sovereignty being developed within. The statement was adopted in October 1990.

In keeping with practices in other republics at that time, the parliament had named Nazarbayev its chairman, and then, soon afterward, it had converted the chairmanship to the presidency of the republic.
In contrast to the presidents of the other republics, especially those in the independence-minded Baltic states, Nazarbayev remained strongly committed to the perpetuation of the Soviet Union throughout the spring and summer of 1991.
He took this position largely because he considered the republics too interdependent economically to survive separation. At the same time, however, Nazarbayev fought hard to secure republic control of Kazakhstan’s enormous mineral wealth and industrial potential. This objective became particularly important after 1990, when it was learned that Gorbachev had negotiated an agreement with Chevron, an American oil company, to develop Kazakhstan’s Tengiz oil fields. Gorbachev did not consult Nazarbayev until talks were nearly complete. At Nazarbayev’s insistence, Moscow surrendered control of the republic’s mineral resources in June 1991. Gorbachev’s authority crumbled rapidly throughout 1991. Nazarbayev, however, continued to support him, persistently urging other republic leaders to sign the revised Union Treaty, which Gorbachev had put forward in a last attempt to hold the Soviet Union together.

Because of the coup attempted by Moscow hardliners against the Gorbachev government in August 1991, the Union Treaty never was signed. Ambivalent about the removal of Gorbachev, Nazarbayev did not condemn the coup attempt until its second day. However, once the incompetence of the plotters became clear, Nazarbayev threw his weight solidly behind Gorbachev and continuation of some form of union, largely because of his conviction that independence would be economic suicide.

At the same time, however, Nazarbayev pragmatically began preparing his republic for much greater freedom, if not for actual independence. He appointed professional economists and managers to high posts, and he began to seek the advice of foreign development and business experts. The outlawing of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan (CPK), which followed the attempted coup, also permitted Nazarbayev to take virtually complete control of the republic’s economy, more than 90% of which had been under the partial or complete direction of the central Soviet government until late 1991. Nazarbayev solidified his position by winning an uncontested election for president in December 1991.

A week after the election, Nazarbayev became the president of an independent state when the leaders of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed documents dissolving the Soviet Union. Nazarbayev quickly convened a meeting of the leaders of the five Central Asian states, thus effectively raising the specter of a “Turkic” confederation of former republics as a counterweight to the “Slavic” states (Russia, Ukraine and Belarus) in whatever federation might succeed the Soviet Union. This move persuaded the three Slavic presidents to include Kazakhstan among the signatories to a recast document of dissolution. Thus, the capital of Kazakhstan lent its name to the Alma-Ata Declaration, in which eleven of the fifteen Soviet republics announced the expansion of the thirteen-day-old CIS. On December 16, 1991, just five days before that declaration, Kazakhstan had become the last of the republics to proclaim its independence.

Kazakhstan has followed the same general political pattern as the other four Central Asian states. After declaring independence from the Soviet political structure completely dominated by Moscow and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) until 1991, Kazakhstan retained the basic governmental structure and, in fact, most of the same leadership that had occupied the top levels of power in 1990. Nursultan Nazarbayev, first secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan (CPK) beginning in 1989, was elected president of the republic in 1991 and remained in undisputed power five years later. Nazarbayev took several effective steps to ensure his position.
The constitution of 1993 made the prime minister and the Council of Ministers responsible solely to the president, and in 1995 a new constitution reinforced that relationship. Furthermore, opposition parties were severely limited by legal restrictions on their activities. Within that rigid framework, Nazarbayev gained substantial popularity by limiting the economic shock of separation from the security of the Soviet Union and by maintaining ethnic harmony in the highly diverse country with more than 100 different nationalities.

In the mid-1990s, Russia remained the most important sponsor of Kazakhstan in economic and national security matters, but in such matters Nazarbayev also backed the strengthening of the multinational structures of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the loose confederation that succeeded the Soviet Union. As sensitive ethnic, national security and economic issues cooled relations with Russia in the 1990s, Nazarbayev cultivated relations with the People’s Republic of China, the other Central Asian nations, and the West. Nevertheless, Kazakhstan remains principally dependent on Russia.
================
Looking Forward
The Soviet Union’s spaceport, now known as the Baikonur Cosmodrome is located in Kazakhstan at Tyuratam, with the secret town of Leninsk being constructed to accommodate the workers of the Cosmodrome.

Current issues include: resolving ethnic differences; speeding up market reforms; establishing stable relations with Russia, China, and other foreign powers; and developing and expanding the country’s abundant energy resources.
=================
المصدر:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Kazakhstan

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